Each SQL Server version has a specific native compatibility level, as a way to distinguish it from other SQL Server versions. The compatibility level is used internally in SQL Server for many operations.
For example, if you try to restore a database backup taken on SQL Server 2017 with native compatibility level 140, to an older SQL Server instance, for example SQL Server 2014 with native compatibility level 120 you will get an error since you cannot do that.
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Backup and Restore with Different SQL Server Compatibility Levels
However, if you backup a database on a SQL Server instance (i.e. instance A) and restore it on a newer one (i.e. instance B), given the fact that the instance B is backwards compatible with instance A, you can restore the database on the new instance and either maintain its compatibility level, or upgrade it (via database options) to the native compatibility level of the new SQL Server instance.
Table with SQL Server Compatibility Levels
In the below table, you can find the currently available SQL Server versions, along with their compatibility level and backwards compatibility:
|SQL Server Version||Compatibility Level||Backward compatibility|
|2008||100||100, 90, 80|
|2008 R2||100||100, 90, 80|
|2012||110||110, 100, 90|
|2014||120||120, 110, 100|
|2016||130||130, 120, 110, 100|
|2017||140||140, 130, 120, 110, 100|
|2019||150||150, 140, 130, 120, 110, 100|
A Free Online Service – SQL Server Backward Compatibility Check
Also, you can learn more about SQL Server, by enrolling to my course “SQL Server Fundamentals – SQL Database for Beginners“.
Last, you can learn more about SQL Server compatibility levels and the ALTER DATABASE T-SQL statement on this MS-Docs article.
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Reference: SQLNetHub.com (https://www.sqlnethub.com)
Artemakis Artemiou is a Senior SQL Server Architect, Author, a 9 Times Microsoft Data Platform MVP (2009-2018) and a Udemy Instructor. He has over 15 years of experience in the IT industry in various roles. Artemakis is the founder of SQLNetHub and TechHowTos.com. Artemakis is the creator of the well-known software tools Snippets Generator and DBA Security Advisor. Also, he is the author of many eBooks on SQL Server. Artemakis currently serves as the President of the Cyprus .NET User Group (CDNUG) and the International .NET Association Country Leader for Cyprus (INETA). Moreover, Artemakis teaches on Udemy, you can check his courses here.